Everyone has a last name, some even have two. The last names started in the middle ages, most commoners at that time didn’t have any last names. But due the great amount of same first names and the growing population in towns in general. People added suffix in their names, so William who was a tanner would become William The Tanner and the one who was a blacksmith he would be called William The Blacksmith. These names don’t only correspond to their jobs but sometimes where they live or physical characteristic. Poor people who worked for a landlord would sometimes take their landlords name but wouldn’t mean they were lords or anything.
Here are some more occupational last names:
Taylor = someone who makes or repairs clothes
Carter = makes or repairs carts
Miller = would work in a mill, make grains etc…
Wainwright = wagon builder
Bishop = worked in someway with the bishop or just the church
Now last names with geographical reasons:
Atwood = someone who lives near the Forrest.
Eastman = someone who comes from the east.
Westwood = someone who comes from the west part of the woods.
Dunlop = someone who lives in a muddy terrain.
Churchill = someone who lives near a church on a hill.