One of the most fascinating and interesting subjects that has been under scrutiny by man is his quest about the origin and the birth of civilization New discoveries from the remains of fossilized bones excavated from the earth at various places throw more light on the subject and makes it more interesting.
The latest line of thinking in regard to human origin zeroes down to two major theories:
• According to one theory, different types of humanoid developed in parallel across the different parts of the universe, and
• The second theory believes that mankind originally developed several million years ago in what we call at present as Africa, and from there man moved across to other regions in the world – especially – first to Asia, then to Australia, followed by Europe and finally the Americas.
We have arrived at some broad consensus with regard to the human origin and birth of civilization. They are:
• Over a considerable period of time, the species belonging to the Homo erectus group were replaced by the Homo sapiens, the group in which humans are categorized.
• The emergence of Homo sapiens occurred sometime between 130,000 years to 200,000 years from now – the period when the human origin took place in the universe.
• One of the earliest generations of Homo sapiens was found to have developed in Africa. Most of the early Homo sapiens lived in caves and were mostly hunter-gatherers
• These hunter-gatherers moved out of the African region in pursuit of hunting and, breaking the Sub-Saharan barrier, moved into other regions which we now categorize under Asia, Australia, and Europe. These hunter-gatherers also successfully crossed the land bridge and entered into the Americas.
• The hunter-gatherers were responsible for developing the cave societies with Neolithic mankind.
• The Neolithic mankind, in pursuit of green pastures, found the river valleys engulfing the major rivers such as the Nile, Tigris, Indus, Euphrates, and Huang Ho and created the first civilizations of human kind in these river valleys.
• The Danube River is the link for the hunter-gatherer into what we now call as Europe and from Europe these hunter-gatherers eventually crossed the Atlantic to the Americas.
Human civilization developed along these river valleys and it is these civilizations that led to major breakthroughs in how the man shaped his life in the world. It is these early civilizations that paved way for the man to understand the nature and also take control over the nature. He learnt and mastered the art of domestication of animals, found ways and means for food in the form of agriculture and also discovered the early techniques of irrigation.