2 Physics Theory That Don’t Work

You might think physics is so useful, actually it’s not in real life situation. It is heavily researched but not as much as before, because lots of the findings just can’t be applied in real.

Theory #1 Force = Mass X Acceleration

It’s one of the most famous physics formula. Though it actually doesn’t mean anything. Friction just shatters this formula and makes it completely useless. It’s just impossible to calculate friction. If there was a variable for it, it would never be constant and nearly impossible to calculate. That’s why this formula is inaccurate and not used much in physics. Physicists do research on very small objects, such as atoms, in that scale friction doesn’t exist or is very small.

Theory #2 Light Speed

The speed of light is calculated to be 186,284 miles per second. Though this formula/ calculation has another variable to it. But normally there is something called air on it’s path. Einstein said that we should look at this theory assuming it’s in a vacuum. So basically the light that is traveling around you right now is not moving, exactly at the speed of light, probably a few miles slower.

What Makes Black Holes Exciting that Makes them Controversial?

Black holes have been the subject of controversy over a long period of time dating back to history.  Black holes have been a part of Physics and the first person who predicted them was Laplace.  It was he who said that it may be possible that the biggest luminous object in the universe is invisible.

Black holes are luminous stars that have the same weight as the earth having the size of 250 times bigger than the sun.  Theoriticians have been trying to use mathematics of Black Holes to formulate solutions to a lot of mysteries on earth which remain a question until now such as the beginning of earth existence and the end of the universe, travel in time, etc.

What causes Black Holes to form?  The pressure created inside a star because its hydrogen fusion balances its gravitational attraction to its core, forms a star.  The amazing feature of a star is that it has its own system to exist and control all its powers and properties.  Since the hydrogen fusion and the gravitational pull balance each other, the star is able to maintain its size while hydrogen is active.

However, when the hydrogen has been transformed to helium, the existing pressure inside the star will lose its ability to balance with the gravitational attraction resulting to the decrease in its size.  This decrease in the size of the star causes its temperature to rise which results to the existence of the Fusion of Helium and the development of too much pressure.

In this case, the pressure becomes more than the gravitational attraction and this causes the star to expand.  This stage when the star has expanded is known as Red Giant stage.  This stage is followed by the depletion in the amount of helium that causes the star to contract.  Thus, it becomes a cycle.

There are 2 theories that may be involved in this cycle.  First, if the mass of the star is not enough to make another fusion, the star appears to be a white tiny star that radiates to release its internal energy.  Second, if the mass of the star dominates the whole body, then, the star turns into a contracted star.

In this process, a very powerful gravitational field is created that can control everything inside the star including its reflection of light outside its body.  This is the reason why its light cannot be fully seen on earth.  The process that the star impedes the ability of the light to travel outside is called Schwarzschild radius where kinetic energy of light is equal to gravitational potential energy of the contracted star.

Therefore above the radius, the gravitational field of the contracted star occurs and below the radius, light cannot escape the star.  This process where the light cannot go out from the interior of the star due to its strong gravity makes it invisible outside.  This is why we cannot fully see the lights of the stars, and this is the reason why they are called Black Holes.

The Amazing Invention of a Car Powered by Water

Do you believe that a car will run if it is powered by ordinary water?  Your first impression will be negative because on a layman’s point of view, you know fully well that there has to be combustion to take place in the engine in order to make a car run and this is impossible for water to become an accessory to burning because in fact, it stops burning.

But of course if it is possible why not, it can be a great remedy for the world to substitute the high cost of using gasoline.

A car fueled by water was invented by a Filipino inventor, Daniel Dingel back in 1969.  A video presentation was shown in 2006 showing a car running filled with water which draws a huge crowd of stunned spectators who were amazed about the invention.

When asked how his invention works, Daniel Dingel revealed that the engine of the car has a compartment that induces water molecules to produce hydrogen.  He explained that electricity was utilized thru a 12-volt car battery to obtain hydrogen and oxygen by means of breaking up the water molecules.

The outcome of separating the water molecules produced hydrogen which is used to power the engine.  In his video presentation, Dingel failed to show a patent as proof of his invention.  This caused many experts in Science to raise doubts about the veracity of his invention.  Dingel also failed to show any technical paper in his video presentation, or offered an explanation to back-up his claim that a car powered by water will run.

Instead of explaining only the mechanics of his invention, Daniel Dingel should have also presented a technical paper outlining the theory behind his amazing invention.  What the public needed was transparency of proof thru a technical paper that can vouch for truth in his invention.

Scientists and experts who viewed his video presentation question the lack of scientific data to convince them that the invention is authentic.  Because of this, they come to believe that it is not water that powers the car but hydrogen.  Being the lightest form of chemical known on earth, hydrogen burns the same way as LPG and gasoline do that fuels the car to run.

In this process, hydrogen can be separated from water.  If you separate water into hydrogen and oxygen, you can produce hydrogen.  In this process, 2 water molecules can create 4 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom.  You can put water in the tank which will split into oxygen and hydrogen.

Then, the engine will be filled with hydrogen as in the case of gasoline.  The engine will make the car run by burning the hydrogen.  The waste emitted by the hydrogen-powered car is totally water vapor that is 100% sanitized.  The experts believed that Dingel used electrolysis procedure to separate the water into oxygen and hydrogen.

This becomes more doubtful because the stored energy in the car battery is very negligible to propel a car.  Hydrogen is not impossible to be used as car fuel, but it raises the doubts on practicality and safety in using it due to its very flammable condition.

What Makes a Submarine Submerge in Water for a Long Time Just Like a Whale?

In science, anything that displaces water equal to its weight will float just like a ship.  This process of water displacement produces an upward force that puts the ship down.  This is what we call the Law of Buoyancy.  In the case of a submarine, it can create and manage its own buoyancy that allows it to sink and rise on surface.

In controlling its buoyancy, the submarine is made up of ballast tanks and accessories called trim tanks that contain water or air alternately.  If the submarine is above surface, the ballast tanks will be filled with air thus, the total density of the submarine becomes less than the water surrounding it.

When the submarine submerge in the water, these ballast tanks become flooded with water and the air contained inside the tanks is released out of the submarine until its total density becomes higher than the water surrounding it.  This process called negative buoyancy makes the submarine sink.

Only a small supply of contracted air is retained for life support of the crew.  The submarine has flexible wings known as hydroplanes at the back that enables the submarine to control its diving angle.  These hydroplanes have angles to induce the water to move at the back forcing the end of the submarine upward that makes it dive in a downward direction.

To maintain the level of the submarine at water depth, it retains a balance of air and water contained in the trim tanks.  This is made possible to produce a total density which is equal to the weight of water surrounding it.

When the submarine rises to the surface, compressed air goes out from the flasks to the ballast tanks that forces the release of water outside the submarine and its total density becomes less than the water surrounding it.  This process enables the submarine to rise up.

Submarines are equipped with diesel engines and high-powered batteries for electrical power under the sea.  Since light cannot penetrate deeply in water, submarines have to put off their lights and go on with their travel with almost blind visibility.  In this case, submarines depend on navigational charts and sophisticated navigational equipment to determine their route.

On the other hand, a whale is different from other mammals in its ability to submerge in water for long.  Its ability to stay under water for a long time in an incredible depth is made possible thru the work of its various organs.  When the whale is in the depth of the sea, it has to change its blood circulation in the flippers and flukes.

The blood temperature returns to normal when the insulating blubber is bypassed.  The blubber of the whale enables it to retain its blood temperature to rise up on surface thus offsetting the negative buoyancy or its ability to stay underwater produced by its muscle and skeleton.

Its power to rise is enabled by its epaxial mass situated on the upper side of its backbone while its submersion ability is powered by its hypaxial mass or popularly called the back muscle.

What is the Mystery Behind the Changing Colors of the Sky?

You will see that during daytime, a clear sky without clouds is colored blue because the molecules present in the air disperse blue light which is reflected from the sun much more than they spread out red light.  If we take a look to the sun during sunset, we can observe that it is colored red and orange combination of colors because the light has been dispersed out and becomes inaccessible to bare eyes.

The white light coming from the sun is blended with all the fascinating colors of the rainbow.  This was discovered by Isaac Newton by using a prism to form a separation of various colors creating a spectrum of rays.  The colors of light are determined by their inherent wave lengths.

The part of the spectrum which produces red light as can be seen by the naked eye is 720 nm wavelengths.  The wavelength towards violet is 380 nm, blended to orange, yellow, green and indigo.  The capacity of the human eyes to see colors in the sky is also an important factor to consider.

The retina of the human eye has color receptors of 3 different types which can strongly visualize the colors of red, green and blue wave lengths.  This process gives the eyes the ability to have color vision.  In 1859, John Tyndall discovered that when light goes thru a clear fluid with tiny particles which are suspended, the smaller wavelengths are spread out stronger than red.

You can observe this by conducting an experiment on a ray of white light directed thru a tank of water containing small amount of milk or soap mixture.  On one side, the beam can be visualized by the blue light it deflects, whereas the light which is seen from the end is colored red after passing thru the tank.

The dispersed light can be seen as polarized if you make use of a filter polarized light, just like when the sky shows a color of dark blue using a Polaroid sunglasses.  This is commonly known as Tyndall effect but Physicists call it Rayleigh scattering, in honor of the man who conducted deeper study on it a few years after.

Tyndall and Rayleigh theorized that the blue color of the sky is caused by small particles of dust and water vapor in the environment.  Much later, scientists concluded that the molecules of oxygen and nitrogen existing in the air are enough proof of light dispersal.  In 1911, Einstein quantified the formula for dispersal of light from molecules as confirmed by an experiment.  The molecules can disperse light because the electric dipole moments contained in the molecules are induced by the electromagnetic field of the light.

If you look at the sky, the red cones react to the tiny amount of dispersed red light, but lesser to the colors of orange and yellow wave lengths.  The green cones react to yellow, green and blue-green wavelengths.  If violet and indigo are not present in the spectrum, the color of the sky would be blue with some green polishing.

If Your Wife is Running After You with a Rifle, Is It Best to Hide Under the Water?

In this case, we have to tackle first the distance that a bullet from the rifle can travel under the water and how deep should a target stay in the water to be protected from rifle bullets.  A number of factors such as the angle of firing, shape of the bullet, design of the bullet nose and the velocity of muzzle are to be considered here in order to establish a defense theory.

Soft-nose bullets can hardly penetrate the water compared to jacketed-designed military bullets.  If bullets are fired vertically at a steep angle, the bullets can penetrate the water, whereas if the bullets are fired at a shallow angle from the water surface, they tend to drag off in different directions.

In movies, the main character often dived into the water whenever he is being chased by the enemies.  How far then should he submerge in water to be safe from bullets?

A bullet travels faster in the air than in water because air is lighter than water.  A drag force is more expected in water than in the air that causes the bullet to slow down.  If an ordinary bullet with a speed of 300 m. per second is fired into the water, the depth of water where it slows down is only a few meters.

Therefore, a 3 meter submerge from the surface of the water is safe from the bullet.  If the person holding the gun fires from the bank of a river, the target only needs to be submerged in 1-2 cm. below the water surface.  This is because an ordinary bullet will slip off the surface of the water just like a stone-throwing.

If the bullet is fired from an aircraft, a round-nose bullet can penetrate the water in a steeper range of approximately 30 cm.  A sharp-nose military bullet can pierce the water up to 5 cm. only.  Bullets fired from pistols have rounded noses that can penetrate the water at a farther distance.

During the war, there were many instances when the soldiers submerged into the water when enemy aircrafts pounded on them on the ground surface.  Were they safe in going a few feet underwater?
Many survivors vouched for the safety of submerging into the water when they were attacked by enemy’s aircraft.

An experiment conducted by the Bureau of Ordnance determines the depth needed for protection against .50 caliber bullets and .30 caliber bullets.

If the .50 caliber bullet is fired in a vertical position downward, the critical distance for the bullets to cause harm is 4-5 feet.  If the bullets are fired in a slanted angle of 45 to 60 degrees, the danger posed by the bullets is reduced by approximately 2 feet.

When a .30 caliber bullet is fired in a vertical downward direction, full penetration can be observed at 1 foot distance but not more than 2 feet. Therefore, based on this observation, the safe range to submerge in water is 5 feet from a .50 caliber machine gun and 2 feet for .30 caliber machine gun.

If You Have the Chance to Breath Under the Water, What Will You Do?

Many people will certainly say “enjoy.”  Those who are lovers of the sea will of course appreciate and love this phenomenon.  Can you imagine that you can enjoy staying underwater without any gadgets at all?  You can catch fish as long as you want and enjoy the beautiful scenery down there.

You can take photos anywhere without the fear of suffocation due to loss of breath.  You can even go to far places and even at the deepest part of the ocean without carrying anything with you.  All you need is something that you can use to catch fish.  You can enjoy your favorite water sports anytime of the year without worry on giant waves.  Incredible isn’t it?

There is no problem with storm or any form of weather disturbances when you are in the middle of the ocean because you are not afraid of drowning.  You can perform more than a scuba diver and hey, you can be hired to lead a search and rescue team to save victims of wreckage in the sea.  What more, you can establish a business conglomerate involved in sea rescue business.

You can even search for treasures beneath the sea with your unique ability of staying underwater for so long.  But wait; is this true or just the works of plain imagination?

In the year 2007, a stunning experiment went underway at the Tokyo’s Waseda University by scientists whose primary aim was to produce a perfect system of installing an artificial gill in human beings.  This will enable divers to stay beneath the sea for as long as they want without any breathing apparatus on hand.

The outer layer of the device to be installed is taken from silicon strands which shield a membrane containing hemoglobin solution.  Oxygen is drawn by the liquid thru the inflow of superfluous hydrogen.  When the hemoglobin is heated, it will release its cargo which will pass thru the windpipe of the swimmer by means of a scuba mouthpiece.

Two interested Americans who saw the initial launching of this innovative phenomenon in the TV have already tried the operation in Tokyo.  Their account based on their experience stated that a certain Mr. Mitsubishi is conducting the operation in Tokyo.  If you are serious about the operation, you will be required to sign a bunch of papers concerning the whole procedure, the risks, side effects if any, and refunds if it won’t be successful.  They found out later that indeed, they can stay beneath the water for so long.  The only drawback is that they prefer eating fish all the time.

This scientific procedure is being perfected based on the breathing ability of fish under water.  However, the scientists are faced with the problem on how to extract a sizeable amount of oxygen from the hemoglobin solution.  There is still an ongoing discussions and brainstorming on how to settle this problem.

But scientists consider this as a minor problem and soon, they would be ready to unveil this perfected unique breathing system under the water, in perfect form.  When this is ready, you can stay beneath the sea for hours without fear except for your body’s capacity to endure the cold water down there.

How Can it Be Possible to Melt Snow Block in Fire?

If you have the chance to go on a bonfire during winter, cast a snow chunk on to the fire.  You will observe that the chunk will slowly melt given the size and heat of the fire.  On a layman’s point of view, water actually can take a great quantity of heat in raising its temperature.

The snow melted probably because it gave some cooling power to the fire surrounding the snow.  The question is, the fire could be very hot and there is a belief that any object has only certain capacity to absorb extreme heat at a given time and any heat added in this case is wasted.  This explains the process of melting in a layman’s point of view.

On the scientific side, there are 2 ways to transfer heat into the snow block.  The heat that comes from something like sunlight known as radiant heat will not have the capacity to force its strength against a snow block because it can discard much of that heat away.

The size of the snow block could have been much cooler than the heat of fire and has the potential to impede the rise of hot air with its own coolness thus somehow protecting itself as it melts.

Considering the amount of heat involved, the fire heated the block snow reaching its melting temperature subsequently followed by heating the melted snow to its boiling point and the process of transforming it finally from liquid to vapor.

As the fire was attempting to reach the boiling point of the snow, the water beneath was also trying to drip into the fire below, not to cool it but slow it down to the extent of trying to extinguish the fire on the surface below.

From this point of situation, there are 3 theories involved in the process of slowing down the melting process.  The first theory concerns the cooling power of the ice to cool down the fire in such a way that it hindered its full strength to melt the snow immediately.

The 2nd is that the snow was not strong enough to absorb the heat and be melted right away considering that it is not a combustible object.  This is the reason why it melted slowly.  The 3rd is that it needs a strong amount of energy to turn the ice crystals to vapor.

The air surrounding the ice is not an effective heat conductor and has a very low heating capacity.  This can be further explained in the scientific process of heating capacity and conductivity.  Water has a high heating capacity and it absorbs too much energy transforming from solid to liquid, and liquid to gas.

You can test this when you finish your shower, you feel so cold.  This is because water consumes a lot of heat in vaporizing off your body temperature.  In case of ice, it can help to keep the ice colder for a little longer if put into fire.  The driving force that induces heat transfer is temperature.

Why Pins Put on a Water Surface Horizontally Do not Sink?

When a pin is placed vertically in the surface of water, it will surely sink because it pierces the water.  The pressure on the small surface of the water is not big enough to enable the pin to float.  But if the pin is placed horizontally, a bigger area of water surrounding the pin is covered enabling the pin to float.

This is because the forces between the water molecules underwater and around the straight pin are wide enough to balance the pin on the water holding it to float.  Even in this modern day, many people still consider the science of magnetism as mysterious.

The magnetosphere of the earth explains the interaction of the earth’s magnetism to the solar wind and magnetic phenomenon on the sun’s surface.  In ancient history, the Greeks and Chinese were aware about the existence of natural magnets coming from iron-rich mineral called lodestones.

The Chinese people were aware that if you rub a metal pin with a lodestone in one direction, the metal pin will also become a magnet.  It was also later discovered that if a magnet or lodestone is put on a small boat floating in a container of water as an experiment, the magnet will always point in one direction which is either the North or the South.

If you rotate the container in any direction, the magnet will still point in one direction.  A wire coil wrapped in iron bar which has current becomes a magnet.  If you use a magnet to attract a group of nails, all the nails will stick to the magnet and each nail will stick to each other afterwards.

Soft iron tends to become a magnet when rubbed in a magnet and its polarity is fixed in one direction which enables it to adhere to another nail. As we all know, the earth is the largest magnetic sphere and it is the great source of magnetic compass.

If you come to think of it, if the power of lodestones was not discovered, it would be impossible to discover the magnetic compass.  In this connection, Columbus would not have succeeded in his expedition in foreign lands without the small and simple equipment known as compass.

Going back to the floating pin, if you try to experiment it in a container of water, you must use the thinnest size of a pin measuring about 3 cm; heavier than this can cause the pin to sink.  The pin should be dry and holding it adds up to its floating ability as it gets some grease from your fingers.

Strike it with a magnet in one direction and you will notice that when you place it on the surface horizontally, it will float but points to one direction either to the North or the South as you verify in your compass.

Why does it float then?  Floating is possible for the pin because the thin skin of the layers of water molecules above the water surface will adhere together to form a blockade that prevents the pin from sinking.

If You are in an Airplane and the Pilot Suddenly Announces a Coming Collision, What Will You Do?

First, let’s determine if a collision between 2 airplanes is possible with all the high-tech equipment operating in the airplane and on the ground.  Based on the flight’s direction, planes have specific altitudes to follow.  If your direction is east, the altitude is an odd thousand and if you are flying to the west, it is an even thousand.

If you are flying over the ocean, the designated altitude is 2,000 feet separations.  Therefore, if 2 planes are intercepted to be on the same altitude, one of the pilots must be on the wrong altitude.  It may be possible that one of the 2 pilots has set the wrong altimeter pressure.

If we take the case of an American plane and a Russian plane, there may be a collision because perhaps the Russian plane makes use of Metric gauges and possibly had a conversion error or it could be that one plane was on top of the other which was flying in a sloppy manner.

Another point is that the warning devices on board may be so sensitive to interact with each other.  This means that when the 2 planes are close to each other, the warning devices automatically shuts off due to the strength of their devices that overpower each other based on their sensitivity.

It could be that the planes were several miles with each other and heading on the same path.  However, the sensors are not that smart to know exactly which direction is the other plane heading to.  All they can tell you is that there is a plane coming as shown by bubbles of air in all directions thus, giving a warning signal to the pilot.

When 2 planes are so close with each other, the pilot has the responsibility to avoid collision.  But there are times when the problem also lies on the ground controllers.  If the air traffic controllers on the ground give a wrong signal due to poor visibility, collision may occur.

Airplanes follow a preset route that many aircrafts do.  Since these aircrafts travel in the same spots, the air traffic controllers make sure that they pass along the route at different times.  If the system is not perfectly done, an increased possibility of collision will arise.  At 33,000 above the ground, collisions are very rare.

Collisions commonly happen near the airports where several aircrafts are taking off and landing in a limited space.  Pilots and air traffic controllers are strictly trained regarding their jobs and they have to obey strict rules while operating in airport areas to avoid accidents.  But even with the most careful handling of their jobs, still accidents happen caused by the slightest error in maneuvering within the area.

So at this point, you can be relieved that it is only at the most extreme cases that a collision may occur in the sky unless intended.  However, you know fully well that there are other causes of plane crash like zero visibility and mechanical troubles.  Just be attentive on safety measures then, whatever happens.