How do Penguins, sled dogs, and otters live in some of the coldest areas on Earth?

People normally think of Penguins as cold weather animals; and they are. Some may live in warmer climates, but in general the Penguin lives in some of the coldest regions of the Earth. The question for today is, how do penguins and other animals not only survive, but thrive, in such frigid conditions.

The average temperature in the Antarctic is a very chilly -58 degrees Fahrenheit. Therefore, Penguins never can forget to wear their cold weather gear. The penguin has a layer of blubber just below the skin that insulates its body. They then have a layer of downy feathers under an upper layer of feathers which overlaps and adds another layer of protection. When the birds go swimming or there is wet precipitation they have glands under their wings that contain oil which gives them a water tight seal. Try to imagine trying to endure that type of cold. Even with the protection of a house it would be difficult to stay warm. Scientists who study the region have to wear layers of clothing even when they are in doors.

What if you spent your entire life in the water? I don’t mean on the water, such as in a boat, but actually constantly in the water. In some regions, because of the warm currents from the South, water can be relatively warm year-round. However, in the Northern Pacific water temperatures never get much above 60 degrees. Thus, when you are swimming in the water, it lowers your body temperature and makes you feel even colder. A sea otter can spend every moment of its life in the ocean. From the time it is born until it dies some otters never touch dry land. These otters have to have a system of fur that will allow them to stay in very cold water without chilling them. The sea otter has two layers of very dense fur. The inner is short and dry. The outer layer of fur is made up of guard fur which overlaps and allows an air barrier to occur between the two which does not allow water to get to the inner layer of fur. The otter does not have any blubber, but because their fur is so dense (approaching one million hairs per square inch) the otters maintain their body temperature.

Northern species of dogs, that are generally thought of as sled dogs, also have an under layer of fur that protects them from the extreme northern cold. These dogs have been known to withstand wind chills of up to -100 degrees Fahrenheit. Normally the dog will sleep under the snow when outside. This gives it an extra protective layer from the cold other than the two that it already employs.

Without these cold fighting techniques, animals that live in the world’s coldest regions would have to move into more temperate zones. But by adapting, they can enjoy the serenity of their chosen environs.

How Poor Boys Can Become Rich Men

Poor boys can be successful men. There is a thin line that separates winning from losing. Characteristics such as civility, diligence, and perseverance can determine if a person will succeed or fail. If you want some advice, you should start by rising early. Being early both literally and figuratively will let you explore various opportunities you otherwise cannot take advantage of. Don’t be afraid to work using your two hands, there is a purpose why you were created with it. Accomplish what you set out to do and never back down from challenges if you believe that there is a chance for you to succeed. Diligence, perseverance, and industry can help you overcome even the most stressful difficulties.

Don’t underestimate the power of respect, civility, and politeness in this world as well. People respond to good character. And you definitely need the help of others in the road to success. Honesty is said to be the best policy. For a successful person though, it is the only policy. Never anticipate wealth from any illegitimate source, work for your way up and don’t step on others on your way to the top. Make your word your bond and realize what it is worth.

Have the knowledge to plan, industry to execute, and honesty to govern your actions. Know your limits, don’t overtrade or give credit you can ill afford. Time is money; calculate the hours of your day accurately to the single cent. Make few promises but exceed expectations when you deliver. Keep important secrets. Live within your means. Being sober in the face of temptation is a characteristic you should aspire to have. Luck is only a word that plays a small role in your successful. But it is not the end all and be all of a successful and rich man. Using caution is the slow but sure thing.

Remember that the highest monuments start with a single small piece. We mount the pyramids step by step. Be bold, be resolute, and be confident. Self-reliance is the best capital. When clouds gather overhead, be determined, difficulties can be surmounted by opposition. Don’t be discouraged when push comes to shove. Use your inner strength to get past all difficulties. Ninety-nine others might say no, but you – the hundredth, should roll up your sleeves and get to work. The best introduction is your own labor, your industry, and your energy. Lean on yourself and keep good company. Stay away from politics unless you’re sure to win, but watch out because the world is unpredictable.

I Shot a Rifle into the Air…

Three questions about gravity and velocity answered.

Question  #1

If the rifle is fired straight up will the bullet pierce the head of the one who fired it when it comes back down ?

The answer is derived from physics, and is all about gravity’s effect on objects. There is a certain principle in science called a constant. This is a factor that has been determined to remain unchanged with certain caveats. Since conditions on the Earth vary, most constants are said to apply only within a vacuum. Meaning that, with the absence of air resistance gravity will act the same on any body. Therefore, the answer to the above question is obvious. If you stood next to someone and fired directly at them, obviously, the bullet would penetrate. The same is true if a projectile is shot straight up into the air. Acceleration has been measured at a constant 32 ft/sec2. The constant is the same whether the bullet is going up or down. Therefore, when the bullet is ascending it would slow at the same rate at which it speeds up on its descent. If you measured the speed of the bullet at any height along its trajectory both ascending and descending, that  speed would be identical. So, the bullet would penetrate because it would have attained the same speed when it reaches the person as it had when it left the rifle.

Question #2

If a rifle is held exactly perpendicular (i.e., horizontally from the ground) and fired while at the same time a bullet is dropped from the same height, which bullet will strike the ground first?

The question is somewhat convoluted. I am saying that if a person fires a rifle from a height of 6 feet, and a bullet is dropped at exactly that same time from an identical six feet, which of the two bullets (fired from a gun or dropped from the hand) will reach the ground first? Given the properties of gravity discussed in the first question the answer is obvious. They would both hit the ground at the same time. Gravity would pull both bullets toward the Earth at a constant rate (32 ft/sec2.) Since both were enacted upon from the same six foot height, both would reach the ground at the same time.

Question #3

A plane is flying at a rate of 500 mph. A rifle is mounted outside of the plane and has a muzzle velocity of 500 mph. When the rifle is fired does the bullet leave the gun seeing that they are both (the bullet and the plane) flying at the same rate?

First, ask yourself this. If you are in the same plane, that is traveling 500 mph, and you jump straight into the air, do you go flying backward at 500 mph? You would answer, “Of course not! What a ridiculous question!” However, we hesitate when asked something similar. The speed of anything within or mounted to an object traveling at a certain speed is relative to the speed of the object. If you are within a plane traveling at 500 mph then you are also traveling at 500 mph. If a rifle is mounted on a plane going 500 mph then it is also traveling at 500 mph. The bullet would leave the gun at precisely the same muzzle velocity, that it would, if the gun were sitting on the ground.

Brain Fun Facts

The Brain is an amazing piece of hardware. It is like a supercomputer that can solve problems, receive and respond to messages, create stories, and play video games. Can you believe that your brain along with the nervous system does all that, and more? It is so much more than a computer.

Your brain does the thinking. The approximate amount of thoughts the brain processes a day is 70,000 thoughts. It sends important messages through your nervous system. You don’t even have to think of things yourself. Your brain does it for you. For example, it tells you to breath, do you ever think about breathing? Even while you are sleeping it gives your body the signal to keep breathing. It tells your legs to walk to get to the kitchen because the microwave is beeping and you need to get your popcorn, or maybe run with the football instead of being tackled.

Ever wonder why you feel out of control with emotion? That is because your brain controls feelings. Like when you feel happy or sad, love or anger, including fear. These are all signals from your brain. Think about it. Do you have to think before you want to be happy or sad? No, when and event or situation occurs your brain says good or bad. It tells you to smile or cry.


The brain is made of about 100 billion nerve cells.

From the 100 billion neurons in the brain, the galaxy has the same number of stars.

It looks similar to a blob of grayish-pink jelly with a wrinkly surface, divided into sections.

Blood vessels carry oxygen and nutritive substance to the brain cells and also remove waste.

The skull is the bone that protects the brain. There is also, tissue-like skin and liquid that is a barrier between the brain and skull.

When you’re born your brain only weights 3/4 of a pound or 350-400g. An adult brain weights about 3 pounds or 1300-1400g.

Albert Einstein’s brain actually weighed less than the average brain, weighting in at 2.71 pounds or 1,230g. Now, I bet you wish your brain was smaller.

Did you know that when a woman is pregnant, the baby’s brain is growing so quickly at one stage, the tiny brain is producing a quarter of a million new baby neurons every minute! That is why an expectant mother gets so tired. Boy or Girl, I’ll buy that for a dollar.


That amazing brain is divided into three major parts. They are called the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and last but not least, the brain stem. The larger portion is the cerebrum. In back, beneath the cerebrum sits the cerebellum. And the brain stem is attached to the spinal cord at the bottom back part of the brain.

Now you need to know that the cerebrum and the cerebellum are sectioned in two parts. They are as we know the right brain and the left brain. Can you guess which side controls which side of your body? Well, as they say opposites attract. The right side of your brain works for the left side of the body and the left side of the brain works for the right side of the body. The nerves cross over from the right and left side of the body and cross again as they reach the brain. If you ask me after that my eyes are crossed.

And did you know that the left side of your brain has 186 additional neuron than, the right side of your brain? I don’t know about you but I’m feeling a little lop sided.


The cerebrum is the biggest portion of the brain. This part, the cerebrum deciphers troubles and composes your needs. It’s kind of like a Gene in a bottle that grants wishes!

This is where all the thinking takes place. The language you speak and the expression of emotions come from your cerebrum. Especially from your cerebral cortex that is on the outside of your cerebrum.

Here are a few facts about the cerebral cortex:

If you were to stretch the cerebral cortex out it measures 2 and 1/2 square feet. That is the equivalent of the area of your night stand. Think about that when you roll over in bed tonight.

85% of the brain is comprised of the cerebral cortex.

If you want a little more detail about the cerebral cortex, the percentage of the actual volume is in the frontal lobe at 41%, the temporal lobe at 22%, the parietal lobe at 19%, and the occipital lobe at 18%.

Back to the cerebrum, this is the indicator of the senses. Signals are carried via the nerves. These signals are what allow you the sense of smell, taste, and feel. All, this from the cerebrum, now wave your hands in the air and wave them like you just don’t care. Your cerebrum did that.


Your body movements are synchronized and harmonized by the cerebellum. It takes a cerebellum to hit a home run. Your cerebrum will tell your hands and arms to move, but your cerebellum will coordinate for precision in order for you to drive it out of the yard. Yea!

Here’s a fun fact: The cerebellum makes up only 10% of the brain, but holds up to half the neurons in the entire brain.

Cerebellum’s the name and balance is its game.


While you’re doing all the things you think are important, your brain stem is at work keeping you alive and doing the things you don’t even think about. Do you even think about it when touching something excruciatingly hot, no you just pull back without even thinking?

Most importantly the brain stem keeps the heart pumping, the lungs breathing, and eyes blinking so you can worry about other things. Like whether you look cool enough for the gang. You go!


You know the system that only your brain, nerves, and spinal cord run through the entire body. It carries messages and signals to all your organs and muscles. If it didn’t you would just be a big something of mess. All your nerves are packaged and make up the spinal cord. These nerves are coordinated throughout the body to the different areas that need to receive important messages. Like that finger that you scratch your nose with. Of course, your spinal cord has protection. The backbone always got its back. Get it? Back.

More fun facts:

A man’s spinal cord is about 45cm long, and a woman’s is about 43cm long.

The equivalent of 3 full soda cans of blood flow through the brain each minute.

In the same minute 46cm cubed of oxygen will consume by the brain through the same blood.

Brain cell begin to die about 4 to 6 minutes after being cut off from oxygen. That, 4 to 6 minutes can save a life.

It takes about 10 seconds to fold unconscious, or in other words pass out, after blood is cut off from the brain.

Your brain uses 20 percent of your entire body’s energy, even though it is only 2 percent of your body weight.

That explains why I get more tired solving a difficult math problem than playing a good game of basketball.

Americans consume 15.5 tons of aspirin each year. How does that relate to the brain, I’m not sure? But if we looked into it, it probably doesn’t.


If you don’t us it, you’ll loose it. It has been studied by scientist that stimulating your mind daily, your brain will strengthen and grow to meet new challenges. Maintaining a strong brain will prevent some types of mental illnesses. You don’t want mental illness. So, give your brain a daily work out. There are a lot of brain teasers of games that you can play to upkeep your thinker. Boosting your thought processing, memory, and reasoning skills will keep you in shape for the long haul.

The brain shrinks 0.25% in mass each year following the age of 30. Bet those brain exercises look good right about now.

To brain, or not to brain, that is the question.

Here’s a brain joke for you:

What did the brain say to the other brain? I don’t know, it was thinking about it.

Brain energy can actually light up a 25 watt light bulb.

Your brain generates more electronic impulses in one day, than all telephones in the world put together.

March is the month of Brain Awareness Week, along with National Brain Injury Awareness and Mental Retardation Awareness.

The brain is a vital part of your body. Its function reflects in your life and the lives of others. Maintain a healthy brain to have knowledge and share knowledge. It is important to be aware and care. Brain is power.

Funny Facts about Dogs

Don’t you just love’em? Known as man’s best friend and were the first animals domesticated by man. Where did the first dog come from you ask? Well dogs were discovered to originate from a weasel like creature that was called a Miacis. These creatures lived about 40 million years ago. But the first actual dog came about 13,000 years ago from Eurasia.

It’s believed a dog originally was formed from a weasel like creature into a fox then to a wolf. What made that fox so mad he turned into a big bad wolf? Don’t ask me what kind of evolution took place to really make that happen. Could make an interesting movie, though. So that means all dogs are descendants of wolfs.

The cavemen of the Palaeolithic age were the first to domesticate the dog and bread them into the dogs that are seen today. Can you imagine that? I wonder who was smarter. But it does make sense why dogs are so developed along side man. They practically grew up together.

Let’s get into some basic dog facts:

Dog years are not actually 7yrs to 1 human year in age. They are actually a little more. The first three years of a dog’s life age is increased greatly in three yearly intervals. Example, first year is equal to 16 years of human life. Second year is 24 years. Third year is 30 years to human years. So at 3 years your dog has aged 30 years. Talk about up and over the hill, poor things.

All dogs have pink tongues. Except the Shar-pei and the Chow, their tongues are black. That’s lovely to think about.

Dogs have whiskers near the nose, above the eyes, and under the jaws. These whiskers help them to detect the slightest shift in air flow. That is how they detect movement so well.

We all know the great sense of smell dogs have. It may be due the extremely large amount of membranes in those snowsers. If the membranes in a dog’ nose were laid out they would be bigger than the dogs itself.

Here is something funny about dogs and smells. Did you know that dogs chew on your socks, shoes, and even underwear because they smell like you? I wonder where dogs learned pay-back.

Dogs can see color. I don’t know where people got the idea that dogs can’t see color, but they do, just not as vivid as we do.

42 big scary teeth are in a dog’ mouth. Take a bite on that. Speaking of bite, the average dog brings to bear down 150 to 200 pounds of pressure for every square inch of bite. Bigger dogs of course can bear down up to 450 pounds.

Dogs have a life span of about 8 to 15 years.

Downsizing to the smaller version of dogs, and by that I mean puppies, those most adorable and irresistible creatures, that has that cute factor working for them.

Can you imagine what it is like to be born blind, deaf, and toothless? Well all puppies are. Come to think of it so are we, pretty much.

Puppies do not open their eyes until about 10 to 15 days after birth. It takes about four weeks for the little critters to get their full eyesight.

It is best to leave a puppy with its mother until eight weeks, at least. They need that bond to learn good dog behavior. You don’t want your puppy to turn out to be some kind of rebel. Do You?

If you can identify the most confident puppy in the litter, be aware, for it thinks it’s the leader of the pack and will always looking to run things. Is that the kind of pet you’re looking for?

When you bring a puppy home for the first time, you don’t have to leave him alone. It is emotional enough that it has been taken from its mother. But after it realizes it has a new home teach it where its place is.

Training a puppy from the beginning will guarantee you a good pet. Also, with proper health and attention you’ll have a content puppy.

Puppies need to chew. It is best to get them something that is just for them. Don’t punish them. This is there way of working on the baby teeth that will later grow into their permanent teeth.

Did you know that a mother dog carries her pups for up to 60 days? Yes, it’s true.

A puppy is easy to love. But knowing the background of the kind of dog it grows into will help you raise a better pet. You will want to know its temperament and what environment it will be happy in. If you’re going to get a new puppy, take the time to research what kind of dog you’re getting.

Here are some doggy facts to get you started….

First thing to know is the oldest recorded bread of dog is called the Saluki. It was raised by the Egyptians for hunting.

Greyhounds are pretty fast reaching a pace 45 miles per hour, in short distances. Can you imagine chasing after that thing?

Well a Springer Spaniel should be easy to guess their ability. Key word is: Spring!

Now if you want a dog that doesn’t bark there is only one known in the world and it is the Basenji, some kind of African Wolf Dog. Imagine bringing that home it might actually look scarier then it sounds.

Chihuahuas are the smallest dogs in the world. So if you’re looking for pocket size it is a good choice. The Chihuahua in the Taco Bell commercials is a female named Gidget. Small world.

The Bull Terrier was created by mix breeding the Terrier and the bulldog.

The African Wolf dog known as the Basenji, actually yodels instead of barking, and licks itself clean, similar to that of a cat.

There is an English Mastiff that holds the record for being the heaviest dog, weighing in at 343 pounds. Think Mastiff, think Grande.

An Australian Cattle Dog holds the record for living to 29 years. So if you’re looking for a long term relationship.

If toes and ears are an issue for you, check out the Lundehund breed. They have six toes; I bet for better gripping and can open and close their ears. I’m sure the ear thing is just to shut you out.

St. Bernard dogs are good dogs to have around if you live up in the mountains. They are the best known rescue dogs.

The German Shepard breeds are great guard dogs. They are very intuitive and helpful to those in need.

Those are just a few breeds, but there are about 800 known breeds today. There is probably a breed for every man, woman, and child. Or all of the above.

Behavior is an important factor for knowing a dog. Just let dogs be dogs. But dogs can suffer from poor self images if you don’t treat them right.

Dogs need petting and affection. They are pack animals and are breed for closeness with the ones they run with.

A dog needs to have an outlet for its excess energy levels. Maybe, chasing cars will do the trick. Dogs actually are reinforced with the idea that the car runs away when they chase after it. Since it seems to go and they chase.

Don’t stare directly into the eyes of a dog that doesn’t know you or like you anyway. They will take it as a challenge. Don’t want to do that.

A dog likes to shake things around in its mouth as part of its instinctive hunting rituals. Also, burying bones is instinctive as part of their feeding rituals.

Howling at the moon is a dog’s natural instinct to call the pack together.

Dogs have great internal clocks. They are on time for everything.

Before lying down you’ll see most dogs turn in a circle, instinctively it turns tall grass, which is usually a great place to lie low and make a bed for snoozing.

Who is running your home? If you’re a push over a dog will see you as lower pack status and will treat you that way. Have the higher pack status and have a submissive dog.

Dogs can get frustrated too. So, make sure they have healthy routines for their living accommodations. Dog’s have feelings too. If you neglect a dog you will know in the mess he leaves you while you’re away. I know another reason why dogs get frustrated. It’s because of this joke: How many dogs does it take to screw in a light bulb? They can’t you dummy they only have paws!

Dogs have been apart of our lives since the beginning. Their history and pedigrees extend as far as man. They have been along the side of man and contributed to the social, commerce, and sure political structure we live in today. There is even a religious parable about a story of a group people that fell asleep in a cave, seeking God’s mercy. Among them was a dog.

Earth Fun Facts

Aw, Earth. When I think of Earth I envision a big blue ball floating in space, a beautiful and peaceful place that houses life. When I look closer the picture becomes, a little distorted. The realization that Earth is a place of extremes and phenomenon rattles the core.

Knowing your Earth does not have to be boring science. Leave all the hard work to the scientist. They figure out the details and we should just apply the basics. And I think the idea behind science is to learn the process of matter in order to maintain it, for proper function. There are a lot of fun and interesting facts that can be kept in mind as you move about your planet. Co-exist with the Earth, be one with your planet.

Earth is the only known planet that supports life. There are a few ideas about some water and atmospheric properties existing on other planets. But nothing compares to good old Earth.

Look here is the basic rundown of the Earth’s features. That way if anyone asks you or, it just comes up in conversation. Could happen?

-The Earth is approximately 3-5 billion years old.

-Planet Earth rotates around the Sun at approximately 1000 miles per hour.

-Earth is the third planet from the sun and the fifth largest in diameter.

You should have at least picked up that one from the sitcom “Third Rock from the Sun.”

-And did you know that our complete solar system is orbiting through our Milky Way Galaxy at a million and a half miles per hour.

Now, that should be easy to remember the next time you sink your teeth into a Milky Way candy bar. That makes me wonder about who thought to name a candy bar Milky Way? Or, should we be asking who named the Milky Way Galaxy? I think the Greeks named it because it looked like milk spilling down the way.

Or, think about this one the next time you carve into a pumpkin:

-Due to the Earth’s rotation, the planet is not completely spherical, but more of a pumpkin shape.

Next, you should know a little about our atmosphere. Let’s see if I can break this down for you. But first let’s define atmosphere. That way we are clear about what atmosphere means:

Meaning relevant to our subject,

1. The mixture of gases that surrounds an astronomical object like Earth.

2. The air or climate of a given place.

Meaning not relevant to our subject,

Another, meaning of atmosphere that expresses an interesting or exciting mood characteristic of a place, such as a night club that has lots of atmosphere, but that is not what we are talking about here. So when you’re out in the clubs remember that not only night clubs have atmosphere. Think of your mother Earth. You may even want to use these smart facts to portray your more attractive intellectual side. So, let’s talk atmosphere.

-Earth’s atmosphere is comprised of five parts, being the gaseous part (gas), hydrosphere (liquid), lithosphere (crust), mantle (layer), and finally, the core (molten).

Oh boy, I don’t even want to go there when it comes to gas, liquid, crust, layer, and molten. We don’t have to speak words to know how those relate.

What is more interesting then the basic make up of the Earth is the miracles and occurring events that are happening every day. Our Earth is truly an amazing wonder world.

For example, 2 million pounds of space dust reaches Earth’s surface each year. Scientists think that this dust carries space microbes that give us flu. Let’s hope the pharmaceutical industry doesn’t catch wind of this. And the next time you miss a day of work or class, blame it on the space dust.

Oxidization is a growing concern in our atmosphere, but an alarming fact is that 80% of our atmosphere contains nitrogen. What does that mean? Well it is helpful in the production of our plant system on Earth. Or, nitrogen in our atmosphere could be a deterrent for futuristic alien invasions. Could be?

Okay, let’s talk volcanoes. Ooh. You know that is some serious stuff, seriously hot stuff. Volcanoes are pretty intimidating and are the most prominent topographic feature on Earth. What’s their story?

-Three quarters of the Earth’s surface is believed to be of volcanic origin.

-The word volcano originated from the name of the Roman god of fire “Vulcan.”

-The chain of volcanic mountains encircles the planet from under the seas.

-20-30 volcanoes erupt yearly, but mostly from under the sea.

Have you ever wondered where pumice stones come from? They are created when the violent separation of gases occur from lava leaving gas bubbles in the rock.

Let’s move on to the water side of things. The earth is often referred to as the Blue Planet. That is because from outer space the atmosphere and oceans combine and make our planet appear blue.

It is sort of like after you’ve had a few. Your mind drifts away and suddenly everyone is beautiful.

-326 cubic miles of water supply is on Earth.

-70 percent of Earths fresh water is produced by the Antarctic Ice Sheets.

-The Antarctic Ice Sheets holds 90% of the Earth’s ice.

-Most volcanoes take place under water.

Here is something interesting to think about. If all the ice in the Antarctica were to melt, sea levels would rise 200 feet. That sounds refreshing. Talk about washing away our sins. Considering Earth is home to over10, 000 religions we may want to think on that. Hum?

Let’s rock and roll with earthquakes, here are some interesting facts to know.

-The most active and massive plate where earthquakes are most frequent is referred to as the Pacific Ring of Fire. Its true name is The Pacific Plate and has boundaries that spread through Japan to Alaska to South America.

-If an earthquake occurs from under the sea it can cause a Tsunami. It can really sweep a town or city clean.

-Asteroids have also been known to cause a tsunami but, how often has that happened? I’ll have to look that up.

While we are on asteroids, the idea of asteroids falling to earth and impacting in certain hotspots created volcanic activity that would then push up from under the sea forming mountains that became islands. This idea on how islands formed is not conclusive.

Speaking of islands, a Hawaiian folk lore relates that, Earth mother, Papa mated with sky father Wake and gave birth to the Hawaiian Islands.

Okay let’s tone this down from the science of Earth and move onto some strange but true facts that happen on Earth.

-In 1783 and eruption in Iceland created so much dust it blocked out the sun over Europe for a short time.

-Six times more water than what’s in the Nile river runs in an underground river just below the Nile itself.

-Roy Sullivan holds the record for being hit by lightening at seven times. Records are cool but come on.

-The highlands of Scotland are some of the oldest mountains in the world, standing at around 400 million years old.

-It used to be that rainforest covered 14% of Earth’s surface, now were down to 2%. This is not a super sale.

-It takes the suns energy 8 minutes to reach Earth, even though the Earth is 93 million miles away from the sun.

-Somewhere on Earth lightening is hitting at 100 times per second.

-Over 99% of the Earth experienced a slight decrease in temperature in the last decade.

-Did you know that 80% of all life lives under the under the ocean’s surface.

Now ask yourself this. How can knowing our Earth be fun and interesting?

The answer is: by knowing your world and its functions and possibilities it can create a whole new life for you to adventure and discover. Our daily lives reflect the conditions of the Earth. Imagine that the next time you erupt on your spouse about the bills. Somewhere not far the earth is erupting for the same reason.

Gravity is not the same all over the surface of the Earth and my body reflects that theory.

The Earth is slowing down and as I move on in age so am I. These are the things happening to us everyday, as they happen to our Earth.

It’s a funny thing if you think about it. Find one good Earth fact and you can relate it to many scenarios in your daily life. Here is one more before I go. The Moon is moving away from the Earth. Well my moon gets farther everyday and my spouse can vouch for that. See the connection.

Chocolate fun facts

The ancient tribes, of the Maya Indians, were the first to discover the wonderful enchanting properties of the cocoa bean around the year 600 AD.  The cocoa bean was treasured for its properties, that is was used as currency, received as precious gifts, and as offerings at religious ceremonies.  But the most treasured use was that of a drink called ‘chocolatl.’  The cocoa beans were roasted and steeped in water along with other delicious spices.

Maya farmers sold and traded their prized cocoa beans for needed supplies such as, clothing, ceremonial feathers, and precious stone.  The cocoa beans were traded locally or carried on the backs of merchants as far as Mexico, where the Aztecs lived, to present the precious commodity to their people.  The wandering tribe of the Aztecs established a remarkable city in the Valley of Mexico in 1325.  Their great civilization and abounding city was destroyed and subjugated by the Spanish in 1521, only to be restored as Mexico City.

The Aztecs were obsessed with the ‘chocolatl’ drink that they considered a symbol of wealth.  A unique blend of the finely ground cocoa bean was made soft, foamy, mixed with chili, fragrant flowers, vanilla, and honey to create a delicious but bitter drink.  Unable to actually grow and produce the cocoa plant in their environment the Aztecs were left to trade or ‘tribute’ for cocoa bean supplies.  ‘Tribute’ is a tax that was given to the Aztecs that had obtained lands during the wars.  They would take the tax in the form of cocoa beans.

By the 16th century the Aztecs had built a great empire and their armies dominated Mexico.  The Aztec people believed and worshiped many gods.  A particular god called Quetzlcoatl, who was a god of agriculture and a creator, was directly linked to the precious cocoa beans.  The Emperor of Mexico, Moctezuma, built temples to honor the god in the city of Tenochtitlan.  The god Quetzalcoatl is associated with an old Mexican Indian myth that is told of the god being driven from his land by a higher god.  The worshipers of Quetzalcoatl revered him and prayed for his return, leaving his legacy the cocoa tree.  In 1517, Don Hernan Cortes arrived with his armada; the Aztec people thought it was Quetzalcoatl returning to them.

The Mayan ‘xocoatl’ is believed to be root of the word “chocolate.”  The Aztec “cacahuatl’ is derived from cocoa.  And the Mexican Indian word for “chocolate” is made from combining the expressions for (‘foam’) choco and (‘water’) atl, concluding ‘chocolatl.’

Christopher Columbus, in 1502, was thought to have brought cocoa beans to King Ferdinand, during his fourth trip from the New World.  The cocoa beans went unnoticed due to the other amazing treasured discovered by Christopher Columbus.  Upon Don Cortes’ travels, that led him to discover Mexico in 1517, he sought the riches and eminence of the “New World” within the realm of the Aztec civilization.  Don Cortes’ interest in the Emperor Montezuma and the empire’s riches drove him to make his way to the Tenochititlan city from Veracruz, where he had first landed upon reaching the “New World.”  This is where Don Cortes took his first drink of the treasured ‘chocolatl’ presented in a golden goblet.

Montezuma was known for always drinking his ‘chocolatl’ from a golden goblet and before retiring to his harem, drank his most valued drink.  This is where the idea that chocolate holds the effect of an aphrodisiac came into the picture.  In 1528, after the Spanish were driven from the city of Tenochtitlan, Cortes returned to Spain but not before loading his armadas with the valued cocoa beans and the equipment to produce the delicious ‘chocolatl’ drink.  It was not long after that that ‘chocolatl’ grew to be the drink of choice among the rich.  Of course, new recipes were formulated to suite the Spanish taste.  In that time the Monks of the monasteries were skilled in medicines and were given to task of processing the beans and creating the ideal tastes according to the Spanish.  It was revealed that the drink was improved when served hot.  Sugar, cinnamon, and nutmeg were added and the chili removed from the recipe creating a light and delicious version that was kept a secret, due to the lack of supply of cocoa beans in that time. By 1606, chocolate was reputable in Italy, where Mr. Francesco Carletti broke the Spanish monopoly.  Francesco Carletti discovered how the Indians made the ‘chocolatl’ drink when he visited Central America.

The Dutch also came upon the treasured cocoa bean when they detained Curacao during the 17th century.  This allowed the wonderful properties of the cocoa beans to be recognized and spread through out Europe.  It was acclaimed that the cocoa bean was a cure for many ailments at that time.  The marriage of the daughter of King Philip II of Spain to King Louis XIII of France not only joined the two as allies but brought chocolate to the French, which ignited a passion for the exotic concoction.  Not only did it prove to be nourishing but had medicinal properties as well.  In 1684, the French conquered Haiti and Cuba and started their won production of cocoa crops.  This created a good supply for the French market.

Germany was introduced to chocolate around 1646 when brought by visitors.  Chocolate ultimately reached England in the 1650s, where King Charles II found it to be on of his most valued treasures.

In 1657, London opened one of the first known chocolate houses.  The French also began producing and selling chocolate by 1657.  A pound of chocolate was prized around 10 -15 shillings.  Chocolate was a luxury product only afforded by the rich.  The value of cocoa grew so great it surpassed money through out the countries.  It was used for trade and worth the weight of gold.

The amazing chocolate drink was the center of gatherings.  It was the favored drink among social, business, and even political events.

Chocolate became known by doctors to have medicinal properties that could aid in many ailments.  In 1662, Louis 14th of France affirmed that chocolate did not break fast for those that abstained the Easter fast.  Pope Gregory 13th also declared the exception.  By 1674 chocolate was being added to cake and rolls.  Chocolate was now being provided in many new forms and recipes.  A porcelain cup designed especially for chocolate was created in 1700.  At this time milk was added to the concoction.

Chocolate was becoming ingrained and used in the lifestyle and culture of the wealthy.  It symbolized the exotic and romantic characteristics of the inspired.

In 1755, the Americas received its introduction to the chocolate fantasy and began being massed produced by1765.  The first chocolate house for the United States was established in Dorchester, Massachusetts.  The popularity of chocolate in the states started of slow but soon became a valued asset.

The chocolate beverage was mainly drunk exclusively by men but was considered appropriate for children about the 17th century.

In 1819, a descendant of Debauve and his partner Monsieur Gallais opened a chocolate shop on the left bank of Paris that still stands there today.  In Bull, John Cadbury, started the foundation of Cadbury Limited in 1824 and is one of the world’s greatest suppliers of chocolate today.

Soon the machinery for producing by-products of the cocoa bean was beginning to be developed by many, as they saw the many benefits of chocolate and its properties.

1847, the first eatable chocolate bar was introduced to the market by Fry’s of England.

Milton S. Hershey, in1892, became fixed on the chocolate industry.  And the rest was history.  There were even stories of espionage that was publicized in 1980, when a Swiss producer of Suchard-Tobler tried to secretly sell chocolate recipes to other countries like Saudi Arabia, China, and Russia.  This states the true value of chocolate in our lives.  The evolution of the cocoa bean into the delight it is today has been developed and transformed as being a part of social, religious, and commerce growth since its discovery.

As you know chocolate still remains a mainstay in our society and culture and has been studied by chefs and doctors to the same avail that chocolate is a divine gift from above and has been associated with the well-being of the human kind trough the times.  Millions of dollars are spent on chocolate every year.  The US alone consumes 2.8 billion pounds yearly, which is almost half the world’s supply of chocolate.  According to researchers, chocolate has over 300 different chemicals that can influence and modify mood, they are able to reduce tension and creating pleasurable feelings.  This may explain the popularity of chocolate and its ability to stand the test and trials of time and remain a favorite among the human race.  The properties of the cocoa bean have proven to attribute to the function and well-being of people.   Chocolate is able to be made into various versions of delectable delights and have a positive effect if eaten in moderation.  It’s like having your cake and eating it too.  What would you want better than that?

Is the moon really made of green cheese

Before the advent of the space program, various parties tried to explain what the moon and other planets consisted of and, how, or if, they were peopled. Explanations can be found in documents ascending from antiquity to modern times. It sounds ridiculous to us that anyone could believe that the moon is anything more than a large rock, but of what did people believe the moon consisted?

Green cheese seems a little far fetched, but lets look at the data. It is round like most cheeses are when they are newly minted. It has an uneven surface. The term “green” may mean color to us, but the intent was the newness not the hue. There is also the distance factor. As far away as the moon is from us, anybody’s guess as to its make up should not be disregarded. So when they looked up they saw a fresh cheese wheel hanging in the sky. We could also make a case for more improvident guesses based on what we see of the moon. Sometimes we have a bright full moon, or a slim fingernail. The argument could be made that there are several different moons and that they rotate the Earth at the same speed and show up at different times of the month. A legend could be started that some lady on a silver chariot rode across the sky and shot moonbeams at the Earth with her silver bow.

But, did anyone actually believe it? The answer is most likely no. The phrase came into common usage due to its improbability. No the moon is not made of a mottled dairy product. How many cows would you need to make a cheese that big anyway? The subject of the jibe is gullibility. When people used the reference it was basically to ask, “How gullible do you think I am?”  Other such phrases have been employed in language to try and convey an idea so ridiculous that it cannot possibly be believed. Someone may say, “Yeah, (in answer to someone else’s fantastic assertion) “and I have a deed for the Golden Gate Bridge right here. Wanna buy it?”

So don’t be fooled into a false belief just because someone swears that it’s the truth. Some people’s truth may be suspect, and that is why we should always investigate contentions diligently for ourselves. Even if the source has proved to be reliable in the past.

Hole through the Earth Good or bad

It has often been postulated that a hole dug through the center of the Earth, from some location in the United States, would land the burrower in China. But what would be the effects of such a hole? Would jumping through really land one on the other side of the world?

Forget for a second that the project is virtually impossible, would probably cause catastrophic consequences to the planet, and may get you eaten by a T. Rex. Bugs bunny and that ilk aside, the crust (outer covering of the earth; like enamel on your teeth) has never been fully breached. The deepest mine in the world, at this time, is in South Africa and is a reported 3585 meters (or about 2.2 miles) deep. The deepest shaft ever drilled into the Earth is about 15 km (9.3 miles.) The crust extends approximately 35 -70 km below the Earth’s surface. But, lets forget about these facts for the sake of speculation.

If such a hole were excavated, would we survive the trip?, would we need parachutes as we shot through the other side?, or would their need to be a rope to pull us out? Well, lets first have a look at gravity. Gravity is the interaction between two objects. It is measured via the masses of the two objects and the distance between them. Every object in the universe is attracted to every other object via gravity. However, the proximity of the object’s centers determines the strength of the attraction. So, your center (on most people somewhere around their stomach) and the Earth’s center are getting closer. The attraction gets stronger and stronger. You are sucked violently toward the Earth’s core and then … you can go no further. You would need someone on the other end of a rope to pull you out. Maybe you could invent some type of antigravity device that would propel you out of the core and then you would probably have to turn it off and use a parachute after you blasted through the other side.

Another factor would probably be the Earth’s magnetic force in consort with your own. However, I think that gravity would be a much stronger force (as demonstrated by the fact that your magnetism is dwarfed significantly by the Earth.)

So there you have it. A difficult problem solved. Any further thoughts?

Bible Fun Facts

The bible is universal and known around the world but what makes it so important? Well the fact is there has never been a book written like it ever before. The bible is in fact written from actual human history.It claims to be the word of god and his interactions with people and nations. The bible is in reality a collection of books. Some short and some longer. The authors were touched by the Holy Spirit to write the words.Here are some points to consider.

-The Bible is the most shoplifted book in the world. That should tell you something!

-about 50 bibles are sold every minute

-the bible was written by over 40 authors

-written from three continents-Asia, Africa, Europe

-written in different places like prison, islands, traveling

-at different times covering 1,500 yrs by shepherds, fishermen, kings and more

Here are some more fun facts:

– Did you know that the word bible comes from a greek word Biblia which means, “books”.Of course that would make sense since the bible is made up of books.

– The bible is actually made up of 773,692 words and would take someone 70 hours to read!

– The Old Testament was written in Hebrew and the New Testament was written in Greek but now the bible is written in 6,000 different languages around the world!

– The Star of Bethlehem was reported by Matthew but at the same time the Chinese were discovering it and thought it was just an unknown star.

-Abraham was the first person in the Bible to be called a Hebrew.

-Pharoahs ruled Egypt for 3,000 years.

-The oldest person in the bible was actually Methuselah. He died at the age of 969 years old. Imagine living that long!

-There were two men in the bible who never died! There names were Enoch and Elijah and God brought took them to heaven.

-The strongest man in the Bible was Samson.

-The wisest man in the Bible was Solomon.

-The greatest warrior was Gideon. With gods help he defeated 135,000 Midianites.

-The acclaimed King Solomon had 700 wives and 300 mistresses or concubines as they were called back then.

-The tallest man in the bible was Goliath who was massive at 9 and a half feet tall!

-There were 12 tribes in Israel and 12 disciples of God.

-If you notice the number 40 is used continually in the Bible to hasten in something new. Examples:
rained lasted 40 days
Jesus fasted for 40 days

-a raven was the first animal to emerge from the ark.

-the number 7 comes up many times in the scriptures.

-The words,”Don’t Be Afraid” appear 365 times in the Bible the same amount of days in the year. Now that one is proliphic!

There are also some interesting facts about angels. The angels were truly a part of Gods plan for the world and helped him with his crusade. Here are some facts:

-the bible reveals what they looked like

-it is explained why they were so important

-they ministered to those who needed salvation

-angels spread good words, fought in battle, protected Gods children

-angels were used to execute judgements

To continue with fun facts in general:

-The word “Christian” only appears 3 times in the Bible.

-The covering on the tabernacle was made out of ram skins and sea cow hides!

-Amazingly there are seven suicides recorded in the Bible. It is very strange to think anyone would want to die?

-The word “Trinity” is never mentioned in the Bible.

-A chariot would cost the equivalent today of 77,000 dollars.

We all know about the plagues of Egypt but how many of us could list them. Well here are the facts:

1.water turn to blood


3.lice and fleas

4.diseased cows


6.boils and sores




10.death of firstborns

Okay, so that was bad enough but then there were the 7 last plagues which are:


2.Sea turns to blood

3.People were burned by the sun


5.River Euphrates dries up


During the 6th Century was most customary to say, “God Bless You” and congratulate people who sneezed. It was thought they were expelling evil from thier bodies! That is something to think about when we use the term these days.

The very last word used in the bible is “Amen”.

– Caves were used to keep animals cool in the intense heat. It is thought Jesus was born in a cave.

We all know how important the Ark was in saving Noah and his family and animals from the flood but perhaps you did not know some of these fun facts:

-the flood happened about 4,300 year ago

-the family was on the ark for over a year

-the ark was huge and safe

-dinosaurs were on the ark

-god shut the doors of the ark

-they think the ark landed in the middle east

-if you are wondering where the flood water went they ran into the oceans

There are different types of prayers listed in the bible. Here they are:










There is one question that we would all like to know:

Where was Jesus buried when he died? Well the bible says he was laid to rest in a burial shroud in Italy. The first record of this shroud dates back to 1353. It was turned over to church officials in Turin. Modern day scientists can not even tell if it is real. There is no way of knowing who is wrapped up in that tomb. However, there were coins placed over thier eyes and they came from the era of Christ! Could it be the saviour? Will we ever know?

Finally, to finish our bible facts. Did you know that the bible is actually biased towards the right-hand of man. If you think about it, the right hand makes the blessing and the sign of the cross.The bible contains 100 positive statements about the right hand. It was thought that those to the right of Christ would inherit the earth. Those to left would burn in hell! It is thought that the devil floats around a person’s left shoulder. That is why today we throw salt over our left shoulder. It is actually a way to ward off the devil! I think I will start throwing salt over my shoulder!